First of all .. Only Allah has the wisdom and knowledge to select for his prophethood whomsoever He wants and he only can decide the medium of communication for his message. Holy Quran is a Book of God. Not only Holy Quran but God revealed many books before Holy Quran. Some of them are Injeel (Bible), Torah (book of Jews) and Psalms (Book of David) and every messenger was given a book in his own language. God wished Qur’an to be in Arabic language, His decision, we can not presume as mankind cannot have such a deep insight. We can just analyse and study the life of Arabia or try to know WHAT WAS SPECIAL ABOUT PRE-ISLAMIC ARABIA? The following maybe the reason that Qur’an revealed in Arabian peninsula and Arabic language.
●Supplication of Ibrahim a.s : It was destined that Prophet Muhammad pbuh would be the last Prophet of Allah and he was also a descendant of Prophet Abraham pbuh. Ibrahim (A) made a supplication to Allah (S) for Prophet Muhammad, asking for the messenger to come from his progeny. That is why Prophet Muhamamd later said, I’m the Dua of my father Ibrahim a.s. Prophet pbuh said: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning. (Muslim)
●Arabs Nation characteristic and Religion : The Ka’bah was built and monotheism concept was introduced by Prophet Ibrahim and Ismail A.S to pagan Arabs. When Prophet Muhammad pbuh came with the monotheistic message, Quran revived the previous message given by Ibrahim AS, they had totally forgot the core message of monotheism i.e to belive in one God. Prophet Ibrahim built a house of Allah (Kab’a). Prophet Muhammad pbuh has again reminded them the same message which was taught by Prophet Ibrahim pbuh which was not new for them. Most importantly, they possessed remarkably sharp memory, could easily memorise anything by heart. Thus quran was preserved in the heart then in written form. In the art of versification and poetry they excelled all others. The entire Qur’an was memorized verbatim (word for word) by some of the Prophet’s Companions. If Quran was revealed in any other language e.g Chinese, French, or any other language would have created chaos failed to grasp the true message of Allah. Arabic language has the potential to express and convey the true and pure concept of Quran so that’s why generation to generation following and practicing the Islam in its true form. Arabic is living language till date.
●Arabic language features : Arabic language has major features includes elementary and root words which offer perfect and composite pattern. Extra ordinarily expressive and intellectual language additionally idiom has vast meaning to express major comprehensive language. From the wisdom behind the revelation of the Quran in the Arabic language is that Arabic is the richest language and that it is the language of the Arabic peninsula, whose people were the first to be addressed by the Quran. So it had to be in only one language, and the Arabic language is most deserving of it, as it is the richest and most eloquent one and because it is the most suitable language for the addressees (the Arabs).” Language is just a medium of communication which should convey perfect and details of the message.
●Arabia geographical condition: Geographically isolated from the major superpower Nation (Rome and Persia). Because of the geographically it was difficult to survive in the desert. That’s the reason it was never under any super power country. Before the arrival of Islam, there was no major world power that dominated the Arabian Peninsula. They had the tolerance power to bear the heat while other nation couldn’t do so..that’s the reason they never became the slave of any other nation. They were saved from the impact of other nation’s cultural or traditional practice.
●Arabia political and Economic status: Arab had tribial life. The other major power of the pre-Islamic world was the Persian Empire and Romania Empirebut unable to extend control into Arabia itself. Arab tribes had a control of Mecca. They were the trustee (pilgrimage place) and The citizens of Makkah were mostly merchants, traders, shepherds and caravan traders.
●Arab’s Social and Cultural : Due to geographical atmosphere it was difficult to live in isolation used to live in tribal system. They had unity and trustworthy people. They never violated their promise even with their enemies. They were very brave, generous and hospitable by nature. They were very much devoted to their faith and were fully endowed with the quality of eloquence. Not possessing any culture and civilization. This culture of Islam took root easily.
●The Preservation Of The Qur’an : Since the Arabic text of the Qur’an is regarded as the direct speech of God, the Qur’an cannot be literally “translated” into any other language. Arabs had blessed with extraordinary memory power. The entire Qur’an was memorized verbatim (word for word) by some of the Prophet’s Companions. Since Mecca was the first place of worship, Allah chose Saudi Arabia to reveal his last message to the mankind.
In fact, the Arabian Peninsula and the surrounding lands were perfectly prepared for the arrival of a powerful monotheistic and uniting force. No one could have imagined how the geographic, political, and cultural setting was perfect for this message to spread in Arabia. The people of that place were equipped with the hold of all the subjects in this scripture by language, geography, age and style of nature.
Allah knows best